Defined: Navigation refers to the method to locate information within a site. Each page has navigation elements, and some pages (menus, site map, search results) are devoted entirely to assisting users navigate to other content on the site.

1. Provide navigational options (4:2)

Do not "dead end" users in pages that contain no navigational options. Also, when popping a new window, make sure it doesn't entirely obscure the main window, and do not try to disable the user's "back" button.

2. Differentiate and group navigation elements (4:3)

Navigation elements should be grouped to reflect the structure of the content. For example, major sections may be listed in a top navigation bar, with subsections of the current major section in the left column. The two (sections and subsections) should not be mixed or given equal weight.

3. Use a list of contents on long pages (4:3)

The advice here is to provide a list of links that jump to specific sections of a long page.

EN: Information architecture is key here - the decision should be made as to whether these topics should be presented on a single page, or if there should be a menu that links to separate pages for separate topics. This may depend on the unique nature of the content.

4. Provide feedback on users' locations (4:2)

There are various methods to provide an indication of a user's location in the site: breadcrumb links, section themes or colors, highlighting the current section's title in the navigation window, etc. Such visual cues help users decide where to go next (after finishing a page, what is the next one to view).

5. Place navigation menus in the left panel (4:3)

Place navigation on the left side of the screen (as opposed to the right) and show subtopics as lists (much like an embedded list) beneath their parent topic (as opposed to having them in a separate column)

6. Use descriptive tab labels (3:3)

The "tabs" are horizontal navigation at the top of the screen. Each should be clearly indicate what it links to (rather than being cryptic, or an acronym)

7. Present tabs effectively (3:3)

The horizontal navigation should attempt to imitate the visual appearance of tabs in a file drawer or notebook

EN: This is based on a study in 1998, when Amazon used this approach. I wonder if the tail isn't wagging the dog here.

8. Keep navigation pages short (2:4)

When a page is exclusively devoted to navigation (no content, just links to other pages), it's best to keep it short, enabling the user to see all choices at a glance, without scrolling.

EN: This may be too general - a page wit ha lot of links can be divided into conceptual sets, so the user can choose a set, then consider the items within that set, if need be.

9. Use appropriate menu types (2:4)

There are some items best presented sequentially (pages are intended to be viewed or tasks performed in a specific order) and others best presented simultaneously (order does not matter, such as choosing a topic from a list).

The author suggests that there are different menu types, but only illustrates the simultaneous variety, leaving it unclear how a sequential menu would be different.

10. Use site maps (2:4)

Use site maps for sites that have many pages. (EN: how many is not indicated). Ideally, the structure of the site map reflects the organization of the site's content, unless another approach (such as an alphabetical list) would make it easier for the user to find content.

EN: User research indicates that very few people other with a site map when they get lost, and generally do not now or care which "section" of a site contains the page they are looking at. It's a virtually useless resource that takes a lot of time to maintain ... but on the bright side, it doesn't do any harm to have one.

11. Glosses for navigational assistance (1:2)

A "gloss" is a short explanation that pops up when the user places their mouse over a link., Glosses should not be relied upon as a substitute for good link naming conventions, nor should they contain excessive content.

Also, note that glosses depend on JavaScript tricks (accessibility issue) and require information that may not be displayed to be loaded as part of the page.

12. Breadcrumb navigation (1:3)

Do not expect users to use breadcrumbs effectively. It is suggested that only six percent of visitors use them, and they do not provide any benefits (in terms of performance)

EN: Also on large-scale sites, a page may appear in the context of multiple topics, which would require different breadcrumbs to appear on the same content, or redundant content to be stored in separate files or database records.